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版本 562cec7620815ef2258087860564242354ddb0ca


Changes from 562cec7620815ef2258087860564242354ddb0ca to ae5837562049a034e0b729361c59c3d133175467

基本上RTC(Real-time clock)本身就是一個真正的時鐘,利用原本STM本身所內建的振盪器再利用Prescaler降成1Hz讓RTC使用。

利用硬體達成的binary-coded decimal (BCD) format,可以把下列與時間有關的資訊儲存,而且不需要任何軟體轉換,因為硬體就已經把資料轉成一般的日期格式。
 1. sub-seconds (not programmable) 
 2. seconds
 3. minutes

 4. hours in 12-hour or 24-hour format

 5. day of the week (day)

 6. day of the month (date)

 7. month

 8. year

一些可以用的功能  Maskable interrupts/events:

 1. Alarm A

 2. Alarm B

 3. Wakeup interrupt

 4. Timestamp

 5. Tamper detection

RTC Calendar 

.. image:: /RTC_calendar.png


當在讀取Calendar時其實並不是真正直接讀取calendar register,其實是在讀shadow register,如果想要直接讀取calendar必須要設BYPSHAD 控制位元為1(在RTC_C Rregister)才能繞過shadow register而直接讀取calender register。

Shadow Register:

Bit 5 BYPSHAD: Bypass the shadow registers

0:間接在Shadow Register( RTC_SSR, RTC_TR, and RTC_DR)讀取Calendar,資料會延遲兩個RTC Clock更新一次

1:不透過Shadow Register直接讀取Calendar,拿到的資料不會延遲會直接更新

STM32的 Clock 有分成「SYSCLK」和「RTCCLK」:


     1. HSI  (High-Speed Internal) :16MHz,RC電路

     2. HSE (Low-Speed External):4-26MHz (一般選用8MHz),石英震盪

     3. Main PLL clock


     1. LSI  (Low-Speed Internal)  :40kHz,RC電路震盪

     2. LSE (High-Speed External):32.768kHz,石英震盪

----> RTC 主要是使用 HSE , LSI  , LSE 三種來源

參閱reference manual p.150

比較 "HSE" , "LSI " , "LSE"三種輸入來源:

HSE  -  較為耗能, 可以處理像是USB或TV訊號的clock,需要和和另一個clock穩定同步。

LSI  -  是一個低功耗的clock,可以再停機或待機模式下保持運行,用在auto-wakeup(簡稱AWU)與 watchdog看門狗(簡稱IMDG)。


LSE  -  它是一個低功耗且"精準"的clock,適合用在時間的精確計算。

RTC 方塊圖

.. image:: /rtc_block.png

How it works

Generate 1Hz

由於clock source速度太快,我們需要用prescaler去轉換成一秒鐘。

.. image:: /stm32 RTC prescaler.png

基於省電需求,將prescaler分為兩個區塊,首先經由較省電的Asynchronous prescaler,再透過較耗能量的Synchronous prescaler輸出1Hz。

根據clock source的頻率不同,我們調整不同的prescaler參數。

.. image:: /embedded/RTC/ck_spre_formula.png

LSE: 32.768kHz / (127+1) / (255+1) = 1Hz

LSI: 32kHz / (127+1) /(249+1) =1Hz


calendar register與alarm作比較,如果相同則將對應的flag拉起來。

.. image:: /embedded/RTC/alarm_pass.png


Prescaler generates the clock to update the calendar.

To minimize power comsuption the prescaler is split into two prescalers, asynchronous and synchronous. It is recommended to configure the asynchronous prescaler to a high value to minimize consumption.

asynchronous prescaler clocks subsecond of calendar and propagates to synchronous prescaler to update date and time by second.

One can configure them through ``PREDIV_A`` and ``PREDIV_S`` bits in ``RTC_PRER``

Calendar and Alarm
A calendar keeps track of the date (day, week, month, year) and time (hours, minutes and seconds) and even subseconds. It manages of numbers of days of mouths automaticly. Daylight saving time adjustment is programmable by software.

Binary repersentation is in binary-coded decimal (BCD) format. 

Data can be read indirectly from shadow registers or directly from counters. The former method delays some clocks but ensures consistency between date and time registers; the later is opposite but this is especially useful after exiting from low power modes, since the shadow registers are not updated during these modes.

Data, time, and subsecond are separately recorded in ``RTC_DR``, ``RTC_TR``, and ``RTC_SSR``. With ``BYPSHAD`` bit set, data can be read directly from counter.

Two programmable alarms (Alarm A, Alarm B) with **interrupt function**. The alarms can be triggered by any **combination** of the calendar fields.

An alarm consists of a register with the same length as the RTC time counter. When the RTC time counter reaches the value programmed in the alarm register, a flag is set to indicate that an alarm event occurred.

In addition to the time to trigger, alarm can be configured to mask some fields and do not compare.

Auto periodic wakeup
A periodic timebase and wakeup unit that can wake up the system from low power modes. When this counter reaches zero, a flag and an interrupt are generated.

It's source clock can be RTC clock or prescaler. Time range can be configured through ``WUCKSEL``

The calendar is saved in timestamp registers when timestamp event is detected on the pin which timestamp alternate function is mapped.

Tamper detection
It can be used for edge detection or level detection with filtering according to ``TAMPFLT``. Set to 00 is edge detection, others arg level detection.

When ``TAMPTS`` set to 1, tamper event trigger timestamp event automatically.

Backup registers
Program can read or write data from or to these registers, which are not reset by system reset or power-on reset. They are  reset when tamper detection event occurs.

Alternate function outputs
Two outputs are avalible : ``RTC_CALIB`` and ``RTC_ALARM``.

``RTC_CALIB`` output is used to generate a variable-frequency signal. It can use either asynchronous or synchronous prescaler as clock.

besides alarm, ``RTC_ALARM`` can use wakeup timer as source.

Synchronization and Reference clock detection
RTC can be synchronized to remote clock by adding a 'shift' to counter continuously to delay, or vice versa. 
With reference clock detection, RTC shifts misaligned 1 Hz clock to align it with the nearst referenced edge (found in a given time window).

One can adjust time by configuring shift through ``RTC_SHIFTR``.

When reference clock detection is enabled (``REFCKON``), must not write ``RTC_SHIFTR`` and not enable calibration and set prescalers (``PREDIV_A`` and ``PREDIV_S``) to default.

Digital calibration
Calibration can be used to compensate inaccuracy of oscillator by adding or substracting clock cycles in each calibration cycle.

There are two calibration methods : coarse and smooth. They should not be used togather. The cycle of the later is smaller than the former. It makes the later is more flexible to adjust clock. A smooth calibration can be performed on the fly so that it can be changed to handle changed envirenment variables.

coarse calibration is provided for capability reasons. It can only be configured in initialization mode and start when INIT bit is cleared. Also it is recommaned using it for static correction only.

Low power modes
The RTC is designed to minimize the power consumption. 

The RTC runs as usual in Sleep mode. 

In Stop mode and Standby mode, the RTC remains active when clock source is LSE or LSI.

Alarm, tamper event, time stamp event, and wakeup cause the device to exit low power mode.

.. image:: /RTC in low power mode.png

wakeup, effectiveness and voltage in three lowpower modes

.. image:: /embedded/RTC/stm32 low power mode summary.png


Register write protection
After system **reset**, the RTC registers are protected registers are automatically locked to against **possible parasitic write accesses**.

RTC registers need to **disable** backup domain protection to update the current calendar time and date.

    set ``DBP`` bit in ``PWR_CR``

After power-up reset, the RTC registers are also protected and need to write a key into protection register. RTC_ISR[13:8], RTC_TAFCR, and RTC_BKPxR are except. Write a wrong key will enable protection.

    write ``0xCA`` to ``RTC_WPR``

    write ``0x53`` to ``RTC_WPR``

Initialization mode
Modifications of ``RTC_DR``, ``RTC_TR``, and ``RTC_PRER`` must be done in Initialization mode.

    set ``INIT`` bit of ``RTC_ISR`` to enter Initialization mode

    wait until ``RTC_ISR`` / ``INITF`` is set then ready to write

    reset ``INIT`` bit of ``RTC_ISR`` to exit Initialization mode

Counter does not run in Initialization mode.

初始化 Calendar
step1.關閉RTC的防寫功能        --->寫入"0xCA"和"0x53"到RTC_WPR register.

step2. 進入初始模式            --->設RTC_ISR register的INIT bit為1

step3. 等待初始化的確認         --->等待2個clock cycle,讓RTC_ISR register的INITF bit(bit 6)為1

step4. 如果需要調整計數速率      --->寫入RTC_PRER register同步時間的值

step5. 選擇想要的時間與日期      --->設定RTC_TR的秒分時;設定RTC_DR的日週月年

step6. 選用12h或24h            --->設RTC_CR register的FTM bit,等於0表示24制;1表示12制

step7.結束初始模式設定          --->清除RTC_ISR register的INIT bit.

step8. 使RTC寫入保護(防寫)      --->寫入"0xFF"到RTC_WPR register


initialize RTC

.. code-block:: prettyprint
    RTC_InitTypeDef RTC_InitStructure;
    RCC_APB1PeriphClockCmd(RCC_APB1Periph_PWR, ENABLE);   /* Enable the PWR clock */
    PWR_BackupAccessCmd(ENABLE);                          /* Allow access to RTC */

    RCC_LSICmd(ENABLE);                                   /* Enable the LSI OSC */
    while(RCC_GetFlagStatus(RCC_FLAG_LSIRDY) == RESET);   /* Wait till LSI is ready */  
    RCC_RTCCLKConfig(RCC_RTCCLKSource_LSI);               /* Select the RTC Clock Source */
    RCC_RTCCLKCmd(ENABLE);                                /* Enable the RTC Clock */
    RTC_WaitForSynchro();                                 /* Wait for RTC APB registers synchronisation */

    /* Configure the RTC data register and RTC prescaler */
    RTC_InitStructure.RTC_AsynchPrediv = 0x7F;
    RTC_InitStructure.RTC_SynchPrediv = 0xF9;
    RTC_InitStructure.RTC_HourFormat = RTC_HourFormat_24;

setting time

.. code-block:: prettyprint

	/* set 8:29:55 */
	RTC_TimeTypeDef RTC_TimeStruct;
	RTC_TimeStruct.RTC_Hours = 8;
	RTC_TimeStruct.RTC_Minutes = 29;
	RTC_TimeStruct.RTC_Seconds = 55;
	RTC_SetTime(RTC_Format_BIN, &RTC_TimeStruct);

initialize RTC alarm

.. code-block:: prettyprint

	EXTI_InitTypeDef EXTI_InitStructure;
	NVIC_InitTypeDef NVIC_InitStructure;

	/* EXTI configuration */
	EXTI_InitStructure.EXTI_Line = EXTI_Line17;
	EXTI_InitStructure.EXTI_Mode = EXTI_Mode_Interrupt;
	EXTI_InitStructure.EXTI_Trigger = EXTI_Trigger_Rising;
	EXTI_InitStructure.EXTI_LineCmd = ENABLE;

	/* Enable the RTC Alarm Interrupt */
	NVIC_InitStructure.NVIC_IRQChannel = RTC_Alarm_IRQn;
	NVIC_InitStructure.NVIC_IRQChannelPreemptionPriority = 0;
	NVIC_InitStructure.NVIC_IRQChannelSubPriority = 0;
	NVIC_InitStructure.NVIC_IRQChannelCmd = ENABLE;

setting alarm time

.. code-block:: prettyprint

	RTC_AlarmTypeDef RTC_AlarmStructure;

	RTC_AlarmCmd(RTC_Alarm_A, DISABLE);   /* disable before setting or cann't write */

	/* set alarm time 8:30:0 everyday */
	RTC_AlarmStructure.RTC_AlarmTime.RTC_H12     = 0x00;
	RTC_AlarmStructure.RTC_AlarmTime.RTC_Hours   = 8;
	RTC_AlarmStructure.RTC_AlarmTime.RTC_Minutes = 30;
	RTC_AlarmStructure.RTC_AlarmTime.RTC_Seconds = 0;
	RTC_AlarmStructure.RTC_AlarmDateWeekDay = 0x31; // Nonspecific
	RTC_AlarmStructure.RTC_AlarmDateWeekDaySel = RTC_AlarmDateWeekDaySel_Date;
	RTC_AlarmStructure.RTC_AlarmMask = RTC_AlarmMask_DateWeekDay; // Everyday 
	RTC_SetAlarm(RTC_Format_BIN, RTC_Alarm_A, &RTC_AlarmStructure);
	/* Enable Alarm */
	RTC_AlarmCmd(RTC_Alarm_A, ENABLE);

complete code

.. code-block:: c

    git clone git@gitcafe.com:ctc8631/RTC-example.git
    cd RTC-example/
    make flash

`RTC application note<http://www.st.com/st-web-ui/static/active/cn/resource/technical/document/application_note/DM00025071.pdf>`_

`STM32F405xx/07xx, STM32F415xx/17xx, STM32F42xxx and STM32F43xxx Reference Manual